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3.6 Release of Python (Part 1)


This is a long doc covering every changes in python 3.6.If you do not know anything about the commands do not read this!

Manuel and other things of Python 3.6

Python 3.6

What’s New In Python 3.6

Editors: Elvis Pranskevichus [email protected], Yury Selivanov [email protected] This article explains the new features in Python 3.6, compared to 3.5. Python 3.6 was released on December 23, 2016.

Summary – Release highlights

New syntax features:
New library modules:
CPython implementation improvements:
Significant improvements in the standard library:
Security improvements:
*On Linux, os.urandom() now blocks until the system urandom entropy pool is initialized to increase the security. See the PEP 524 for the rationale.
Windows improvements:

New Features

PEP 498: Formatted string literals

PEP 498 introduces a new kind of string literals: f-strings, or formatted string literals. Formatted string literals are prefixed with 'f' and are similar to the format strings accepted by str.format(). They contain replacement fields surrounded by curly braces. The replacement fields are expressions, which are evaluated at run time, and then formatted using the format() protocol:
name = "Fred">>> f"He said his name is {name}."'He said his name is Fred.'>>>
width = 10>>> precision = 4>>> value = decimal.Decimal("12.34567")>>> f"result:
{value:{width}.{precision}}" # nested fields'result: 12.35'

PEP 526: Syntax for variable annotations

PEP 484 introduced the standard for type annotations of function parameters, a.k.a. type hints. This PEP adds syntax to Python for annotating the types of variables including class variables and instance variables:
primes: List[int] = []
captain: str # Note: no initial value!
class Starship:
stats: Dict[str, int] = {} 
Just as for function annotations, the Python interpreter does not attach any particular meaning to variable annotations and only stores them in the annotations attribute of a class or module. In contrast to variable declarations in statically typed languages, the goal of annotation syntax is to provide an easy way to specify structured type metadata for third party tools and libraries via the abstract syntax tree and the annotations attribute.
Tools that use or will use the new syntax: mypy, pytype, PyCharm, etc.

PEP 515: Underscores in Numeric Literals

PEP 515 adds the ability to use underscores in numeric literals for improved readability. For example:
Single underscores are allowed between digits and after any base specifier. Leading, trailing, or multiple underscores in a row are not allowed.
The string formatting language also now has support for the '_' option to signal the use of an underscore for a thousands separator for floating point presentation types and for integer presentation type 'd'. For integer presentation types 'b', 'o', 'x', and 'X', underscores will be inserted every 4 digits:
'{:_}'.format(1000000)'1_000_000'>>> '{:_x}'.format(0xFFFFFFFF)'ffff_ffff'

PEP 525: Asynchronous Generators

PEP 492 introduced support for native coroutines and async / await syntax to Python 3.5. A notable limitation of the Python 3.5 implementation is that it was not possible to use await and yield in the same function body. In Python 3.6 this restriction has been lifted, making it possible to define asynchronous generators:
async def ticker(delay, to):
"""Yield numbers from 0 to *to* every *delay* seconds.""" for i in range(to): yield i await asyncio.sleep(delay) 
The new syntax allows for faster and more concise code.

PEP 530: Asynchronous Comprehensions

PEP 530 adds support for using async for in list, set, dict comprehensions and generator expressions:
result = [i async for i in aiter() if i % 2]
Additionally, await expressions are supported in all kinds of comprehensions:
result = [await fun() for fun in funcs if await condition()]

PEP 487: Simpler customization of class creation

It is now possible to customize subclass creation without using a metaclass. The new init_subclass classmethod will be called on the base class whenever a new subclass is created:
class PluginBase:
subclasses = [] def __init_subclass__(cls, **kwargs): super().__init_subclass__(**kwargs) cls.subclasses.append(cls) 
class Plugin1(PluginBase):
class Plugin2(PluginBase):
In order to allow zero-argument super() calls to work correctly from init_subclass() implementations, custom metaclasses must ensure that the new classcell namespace entry is propagated to type.new (as described in Creating the class object).

PEP 487: Descriptor Protocol Enhancements

PEP 487 extends the descriptor protocol to include the new optional set_name() method. Whenever a new class is defined, the new method will be called on all descriptors included in the definition, providing them with a reference to the class being defined and the name given to the descriptor within the class namespace. In other words, instances of descriptors can now know the attribute name of the descriptor in the owner class:
class IntField:
def __get__(self, instance, owner): return instance.__dict__[self.name] def __set__(self, instance, value): if not isinstance(value, int): raise ValueError(f'expecting integer in {self.name}') instance.__dict__[self.name] = value # this is the new initializer: def __set_name__(self, owner, name): self.name = name 
class Model:
int_field = IntField() 

PEP 519: Adding a file system path protocol

File system paths have historically been represented as str or bytes objects. This has led to people who write code which operate on file system paths to assume that such objects are only one of those two types (an int representing a file descriptor does not count as that is not a file path). Unfortunately that assumption prevents alternative object representations of file system paths like pathlib from working with pre-existing code, including Python’s standard library. To fix this situation, a new interface represented by os.PathLike has been defined. By implementing the fspath() method, an object signals that it represents a path. An object can then provide a low-level representation of a file system path as a str or bytes object. This means an object is considered path-like if it implements os.PathLike or is a str or bytes object which represents a file system path. Code can use os.fspath(), os.fsdecode(), or os.fsencode() to explicitly get a str and/or bytes representation of a path-like object. The built-in open() function has been updated to accept os.PathLike objects, as have all relevant functions in the os and os.path modules, and most other functions and classes in the standard library. The os.DirEntry class and relevant classes in pathlib have also been updated to implement os.PathLike. The hope is that updating the fundamental functions for operating on file system paths will lead to third-party code to implicitly support all path-like objects without any code changes, or at least very minimal ones (e.g. calling os.fspath() at the beginning of code before operating on a path-like object). Here are some examples of how the new interface allows for pathlib.Path to be used more easily and transparently with pre-existing code:
import pathlib>>> with open(pathlib.Path("README")) as f:... contents
= f.read()...>>> import os.path>>>
os.path.splitext(pathlib.Path("some_file.txt"))('some_file', '.txt')>>>
os.path.join("/a/b", pathlib.Path("c"))'/a/b/c'>>> import os>>>

PEP 495: Local Time Disambiguation

In most world locations, there have been and will be times when local clocks are moved back. In those times, intervals are introduced in which local clocks show the same time twice in the same day. In these situations, the information displayed on a local clock (or stored in a Python datetime instance) is insufficient to identify a particular moment in time. PEP 495 adds the new fold attribute to instances of datetime.datetime and datetime.time classes to differentiate between two moments in time for which local times are the same:
u0 = datetime(2016, 11, 6, 4, tzinfo=timezone.utc)>>> for i in range(4):...
u = u0 + i*HOUR... t = u.astimezone(Eastern)... print(u.time(), 'UTC =',
t.time(), t.tzname(), t.fold)...04:00:00 UTC = 00:00:00 EDT 005:00:00 UTC = 01:00:00
EDT 006:00:00 UTC = 01:00:00 EST 107:00:00 UTC = 02:00:00 EST 0
The values of the fold attribute have the value 0 for all instances except those that represent the second (chronologically) moment in time in an ambiguous case.

PEP 529: Change Windows filesystem encoding to UTF-8

Representing filesystem paths is best performed with str (Unicode) rather than bytes. However, there are some situations where using bytes is sufficient and correct. Prior to Python 3.6, data loss could result when using bytes paths on Windows. With this change, using bytes to represent paths is now supported on Windows, provided those bytes are encoded with the encoding returned by sys.getfilesystemencoding(), which now defaults to 'utf-8'. Applications that do not use str to represent paths should use os.fsencode() and os.fsdecode() to ensure their bytes are correctly encoded. To revert to the previous behaviour, set PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSFSENCODING or call sys._enablelegacywindowsfsencoding().

PEP 528: Change Windows console encoding to UTF-8

The default console on Windows will now accept all Unicode characters and provide correctly read str objects to Python code. sys.stdin, sys.stdout and sys.stderr now default to utf-8 encoding. This change only applies when using an interactive console, and not when redirecting files or pipes. To revert to the previous behaviour for interactive console use, set PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSSTDIO.

PEP 520: Preserving Class Attribute Definition Order

Attributes in a class definition body have a natural ordering: the same order in which the names appear in the source. This order is now preserved in the new class’s dict attribute. Also, the effective default class execution namespace (returned from type.prepare()) is now an insertion-order-preserving mapping.

PEP 468: Preserving Keyword Argument Order

**kwargs in a function signature is now guaranteed to be an insertion-order-preserving mapping.

New dict implementation

The dict type now uses a “compact” representation based on a proposal by Raymond Hettinger which was first implemented by PyPy. The memory usage of the new dict() is between 20% and 25% smaller compared to Python 3.5. The order-preserving aspect of this new implementation is considered an implementation detail and should not be relied upon (this may change in the future, but it is desired to have this new dict implementation in the language for a few releases before changing the language spec to mandate order-preserving semantics for all current and future Python implementations; this also helps preserve backwards-compatibility with older versions of the language where random iteration order is still in effect, e.g. Python 3.5). (Contributed by INADA Naoki in bpo-27350. Idea originally suggested by Raymond Hettinger.) PEP 523: Adding a frame evaluation API to CPython While Python provides extensive support to customize how code executes, one place it has not done so is in the evaluation of frame objects. If you wanted some way to intercept frame evaluation in Python there really wasn’t any way without directly manipulating function pointers for defined functions. PEP 523 changes this by providing an API to make frame evaluation pluggable at the C level. This will allow for tools such as debuggers and JITs to intercept frame evaluation before the execution of Python code begins. This enables the use of alternative evaluation implementations for Python code, tracking frame evaluation, etc. This API is not part of the limited C API and is marked as private to signal that usage of this API is expected to be limited and only applicable to very select, low-level use-cases. Semantics of the API will change with Python as necessary.

PYTHONMALLOC environment variable

The new PYTHONMALLOC environment variable allows setting the Python memory allocators and installing debug hooks. It is now possible to install debug hooks on Python memory allocators on Python compiled in release mode using PYTHONMALLOC=debug. Effects of debug hooks: Newly allocated memory is filled with the byte 0xCB Freed memory is filled with the byte 0xDB Detect violations of the Python memory allocator API. For example, PyObject_Free() called on a memory block allocated by PyMem_Malloc(). Detect writes before the start of a buffer (buffer underflows) Detect writes after the end of a buffer (buffer overflows) Check that the GIL is held when allocator functions of PYMEM_DOMAIN_OBJ (ex: PyObject_Malloc()) and PYMEM_DOMAIN_MEM (ex: PyMem_Malloc()) domains are called. Checking if the GIL is held is also a new feature of Python 3.6. See the PyMem_SetupDebugHooks() function for debug hooks on Python memory allocators. It is now also possible to force the usage of the malloc() allocator of the C library for all Python memory allocations using PYTHONMALLOC=malloc. This is helpful when using external memory debuggers like Valgrind on a Python compiled in release mode. On error, the debug hooks on Python memory allocators now use the tracemalloc module to get the traceback where a memory block was allocated. Example of fatal error on buffer overflow using python3.6 -X tracemalloc=5 (store 5 frames in traces):
Debug memory block at address p=0x7fbcd41666f8: API 'o'
4 bytes originally requested The 7 pad bytes at p-7 are FORBIDDENBYTE, as expected. The 8 pad bytes at tail=0x7fbcd41666fc are not all FORBIDDENBYTE (0xfb): at tail+0: 0x02 *** OUCH at tail+1: 0xfb at tail+2: 0xfb at tail+3: 0xfb at tail+4: 0xfb at tail+5: 0xfb at tail+6: 0xfb at tail+7: 0xfb The block was made by call #1233329 to debug malloc/realloc. Data at p: 1a 2b 30 00 
Memory block allocated at (most recent call first):
File "test/test_bytes.py", line 323
File "unittest/case.py", line 600
File "unittest/case.py", line 648
File "unittest/suite.py", line 122
File "unittest/suite.py", line 84
Fatal Python error: bad trailing pad byte
Current thread 0x00007fbcdbd32700 (most recent call first):
File "test/test_bytes.py", line 323 in test_hex
File "unittest/case.py", line 600 in run
File "unittest/case.py", line 648 in call
File "unittest/suite.py", line 122 in run
File "unittest/suite.py", line 84 in call
File "unittest/suite.py", line 122 in run
File "unittest/suite.py", line 84 in call
(Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-26516 and bpo-26564.)

DTrace and SystemTap probing support

Python can now be built --with-dtrace which enables static markers for the following events in the interpreter: * function call/return * garbage collection started/finished * Line of code executed.
This can be used to instrument running interpreters in production, without the need to recompile specific debug builds or providing application-specific profiling/debugging code. More details in Instrumenting CPython with DTrace and SystemTap.
The current implementation is tested on Linux and macOS. Additional markers may be added in the future.
(Contributed by Łukasz Langa in bpo-21590, based on patches by Jesús Cea Avión, David Malcolm, and Nikhil Benesch.)

Other Language Changes

Some smaller changes made to the core Python language are: A global or nonlocal statement must now textually appear before the first use of the affected name in the same scope. Previously this was a SyntaxWarning.
It is now possible to set a special method to None to indicate that the corresponding operation is not available. For example, if a class sets iter() to None, the class is not iterable. (Contributed by Andrew Barnert and Ivan Levkivskyi in bpo-25958.)
Long sequences of repeated traceback lines are now abbreviated as "[Previous line repeated {count} more times]" (see traceback for an example). (Contributed by Emanuel Barry in bpo-26823.)
Import now raises the new exception ModuleNotFoundError (subclass of ImportError) when it cannot find a module. Code that currently checks for ImportError (in try-except) will still work. (Contributed by Eric Snow in bpo-15767.)
Class methods relying on zero-argument super() will now work correctly when called from metaclass methods during class creation. (Contributed by Martin Teichmann in bpo-23722.)

New Modules


The main purpose of the new secrets module is to provide an obvious way to reliably generate cryptographically strong pseudo-random values suitable for managing secrets, such as account authentication, tokens, and similar. Warning Note that the pseudo-random generators in the random module should NOT be used for security purposes. Use secrets on Python 3.6+ and os.urandom() on Python 3.5 and earlier.

Improved Modules


Exhausted iterators of array.array will now stay exhausted even if the iterated array is extended. This is consistent with the behavior of other mutable sequences. Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-26492.


The new ast.Constant AST node has been added. It can be used by external AST optimizers for the purposes of constant folding. Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-26146.


Starting with Python 3.6 the asyncio module is no longer provisional and its API is considered stable. Notable changes in the asyncio module since Python 3.5.0 (all backported to 3.5.x due to the provisional status): * The get_event_loop() function has been changed to always return the currently running loop when called from couroutines and callbacks. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov in bpo-28613.) * The ensure_future() function and all functions that use it, such as loop.run_until_complete(), now accept all kinds of awaitable objects. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov.) * New run_coroutine_threadsafe() function to submit coroutines to event loops from other threads. (Contributed by Vincent Michel.) * New Transport.is_closing() method to check if the transport is closing or closed. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov.) * The loop.create_server() method can now accept a list of hosts. (Contributed by Yann Sionneau.) * New loop.create_future() method to create Future objects. This allows alternative event loop implementations, such as uvloop, to provide a faster asyncio.Future implementation. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov in bpo-27041.) * New loop.get_exception_handler() method to get the current exception handler. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov in bpo-27040.) * New StreamReader.readuntil() method to read data from the stream until a separator bytes sequence appears. (Contributed by Mark Korenberg.) * The performance of StreamReader.readexactly() has been improved. (Contributed by Mark Korenberg in bpo-28370.) * The loop.getaddrinfo() method is optimized to avoid calling the system getaddrinfo function if the address is already resolved. (Contributed by A. Jesse Jiryu Davis.) * The loop.stop() method has been changed to stop the loop immediately after the current iteration. Any new callbacks scheduled as a result of the last iteration will be discarded. (Contributed by Guido van Rossum in bpo-25593.) * Future.set_exception will now raise TypeError when passed an instance of the StopIteration exception. (Contributed by Chris Angelico in bpo-26221.) * New loop.connect_accepted_socket() method to be used by servers that accept connections outside of asyncio, but that use asyncio to handle them. (Contributed by Jim Fulton in bpo-27392.) TCP_NODELAY flag is now set for all TCP transports by default. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov in bpo-27456.) * New loop.shutdown_asyncgens() to properly close pending asynchronous generators before closing the loop. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov in bpo-28003.) * Future and Task classes now have an optimized C implementation which makes asyncio code up to 30% faster. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov and INADA Naoki in bpo-26081 and bpo-28544.)


The b2a_base64() function now accepts an optional newline keyword argument to control whether the newline character is appended to the return value. (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-25357.)


The new cmath.tau (τ) constant has been added. (Contributed by Lisa Roach in bpo-12345, see PEP 628 for details.)
New constants: cmath.inf and cmath.nan to match math.inf and math.nan, and also cmath.infj and cmath.nanj to match the format used by complex repr. (Contributed by Mark Dickinson in bpo-23229.)


The new Collection abstract base class has been added to represent sized iterable container classes. (Contributed by Ivan Levkivskyi, docs by Neil Girdhar in bpo-27598.)
The new Reversible abstract base class represents iterable classes that also provide the reversed() method. (Contributed by Ivan Levkivskyi in bpo-25987.)
The new AsyncGenerator abstract base class represents asynchronous generators. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov in bpo-28720.)
The namedtuple() function now accepts an optional keyword argument module, which, when specified, is used for the module attribute of the returned named tuple class. (Contributed by Raymond Hettinger in bpo-17941.)
The verbose and rename arguments for namedtuple() are now keyword-only. (Contributed by Raymond Hettinger in bpo-25628.)
Recursive collections.deque instances can now be pickled. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-26482.)


The ThreadPoolExecutor class constructor now accepts an optional thread_name_prefix argument to make it possible to customize the names of the threads created by the pool. (Contributed by Gregory P. Smith in bpo-27664.)


The contextlib.AbstractContextManager class has been added to provide an abstract base class for context managers. It provides a sensible default implementation for enter() which returns self and leaves exit() an abstract method. A matching class has been added to the typing module as typing.ContextManager. (Contributed by Brett Cannon in bpo-25609.)


The datetime and time classes have the new fold attribute used to disambiguate local time when necessary. Many functions in the datetime have been updated to support local time disambiguation. See Local Time Disambiguation section for more information. (Contributed by Alexander Belopolsky in bpo-24773.)
The datetime.strftime() and date.strftime() methods now support ISO 8601 date directives %G, %u and %V. (Contributed by Ashley Anderson in bpo-12006.)
The datetime.isoformat() function now accepts an optional timespec argument that specifies the number of additional components of the time value to include. (Contributed by Alessandro Cucci and Alexander Belopolsky in bpo-19475.)
The datetime.combine() now accepts an optional tzinfo argument. (Contributed by Alexander Belopolsky in bpo-27661.) decimal
New Decimal.as_integer_ratio() method that returns a pair (n, d) of integers that represent the given Decimal instance as a fraction, in lowest terms and with a positive denominator:
Decimal('-3.14').as_integer_ratio()(-157, 50)
(Contributed by Stefan Krah amd Mark Dickinson in bpo-25928.)


The default_format attribute has been removed from distutils.command.sdist.sdist and the formats attribute defaults to ['gztar']. Although not anticipated, any code relying on the presence of default_format may need to be adapted. See bpo-27819 for more details.
The upload command now longer tries to change CR end-of-line characters to CRLF. This fixes a corruption issue with sdists that ended with a byte equivalent to CR. (Contributed by Bo Bayles in bpo-32304.)


The new email API, enabled via the policy keyword to various constructors, is no longer provisional. The email documentation has been reorganized and rewritten to focus on the new API, while retaining the old documentation for the legacy API. (Contributed by R. David Murray in bpo-24277.) The email.mime classes now all accept an optional policy keyword. (Contributed by Berker Peksag in bpo-27331.)
The DecodedGenerator now supports the policy keyword.
There is a new policy attribute, message_factory, that controls what class is used by default when the parser creates new message objects. For the email.policy.compat32 policy this is Message, for the new policies it is EmailMessage. (Contributed by R. David Murray in bpo-20476.)


On Windows, added the 'oem' encoding to use CP_OEMCP, and the 'ansi' alias for the existing 'mbcs' encoding, which uses the CP_ACP code page. (Contributed by Steve Dower in bpo-27959.)


Two new enumeration base classes have been added to the enum module: Flag and IntFlags. Both are used to define constants that can be combined using the bitwise operators. (Contributed by Ethan Furman in bpo-23591.)
Many standard library modules have been updated to use the IntFlags class for their constants. The new enum.auto value can be used to assign values to enum members automatically:
from enum import Enum, auto>>> class Color(Enum):... red = auto()...
blue = auto()... green = auto()...>>> list(Color)[, , ] faulthandler
On Windows, the faulthandler module now installs a handler for Windows exceptions: see faulthandler.enable(). (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-23848.)


hook_encoded() now supports the errors argument. (Contributed by Joseph Hackman in bpo-25788.)


hashlib supports OpenSSL 1.1.0. The minimum recommend version is 1.0.2. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-26470.)
BLAKE2 hash functions were added to the module. blake2b() and blake2s() are always available and support the full feature set of BLAKE2. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-26798 based on code by Dmitry Chestnykh and Samuel Neves. Documentation written by Dmitry Chestnykh.)
The SHA-3 hash functions sha3_224(), sha3_256(), sha3_384(), sha3_512(), and SHAKE hash functions shake_128() and shake_256() were added. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-16113. Keccak Code Package by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, Gilles Van Assche, and Ronny Van Keer.)
The password-based key derivation function scrypt() is now available with OpenSSL 1.1.0 and newer. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-27928.)


HTTPConnection.request() and endheaders() both now support chunked encoding request bodies. (Contributed by Demian Brecht and Rolf Krahl in bpo-12319.)

idlelib and IDLE

The idlelib package is being modernized and refactored to make IDLE look and work better and to make the code easier to understand, test, and improve. Part of making IDLE look better, especially on Linux and Mac, is using ttk widgets, mostly in the dialogs. As a result, IDLE no longer runs with tcl/tk 8.4. It now requires tcl/tk 8.5 or 8.6. We recommend running the latest release of either.
‘Modernizing’ includes renaming and consolidation of idlelib modules. The renaming of files with partial uppercase names is similar to the renaming of, for instance, Tkinter and TkFont to tkinter and tkinter.font in 3.0. As a result, imports of idlelib files that worked in 3.5 will usually not work in 3.6. At least a module name change will be needed (see idlelib/README.txt), sometimes more. (Name changes contributed by Al Swiegart and Terry Reedy in bpo-24225. Most idlelib patches since have been and will be part of the process.)
In compensation, the eventual result with be that some idlelib classes will be easier to use, with better APIs and docstrings explaining them. Additional useful information will be added to idlelib when available.


Import now raises the new exception ModuleNotFoundError (subclass of ImportError) when it cannot find a module. Code that current checks for ImportError (in try-except) will still work. (Contributed by Eric Snow in bpo-15767.)
importlib.util.LazyLoader now calls create_module() on the wrapped loader, removing the restriction that importlib.machinery.BuiltinImporter and importlib.machinery.ExtensionFileLoader couldn’t be used with importlib.util.LazyLoader. importlib.util.cache_from_source(), importlib.util.source_from_cache(), and importlib.util.spec_from_file_location() now accept a path-like object.


The inspect.signature() function now reports the implicit .0 parameters generated by the compiler for comprehension and generator expression scopes as if they were positional-only parameters called implicit0. (Contributed by Jelle Zijlstra in bpo-19611.)
To reduce code churn when upgrading from Python 2.7 and the legacy inspect.getargspec() API, the previously documented deprecation of inspect.getfullargspec() has been reversed. While this function is convenient for single/source Python 2/3 code bases, the richer inspect.signature() interface remains the recommended approach for new code. (Contributed by Nick Coghlan in bpo-27172)


json.load() and json.loads() now support binary input. Encoded JSON should be represented using either UTF-8, UTF-16, or UTF-32. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-17909.) logging
The new WatchedFileHandler.reopenIfNeeded() method has been added to add the ability to check if the log file needs to be reopened. (Contributed by Marian Horban in bpo-24884.)


The tau (τ) constant has been added to the math and cmath modules. (Contributed by Lisa Roach in bpo-12345, see PEP 628 for details.)


Proxy Objects returned by multiprocessing.Manager() can now be nested. (Contributed by Davin Potts in bpo-6766.)


See the summary of PEP 519 for details on how the os and os.path modules now support path-like objects.
scandir() now supports bytes paths on Windows.
A new close() method allows explicitly closing a scandir() iterator. The scandir() iterator now supports the context manager protocol. If a scandir() iterator is neither exhausted nor explicitly closed a ResourceWarning will be emitted in its destructor. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-25994.) On Linux, os.urandom() now blocks until the system urandom entropy pool is initialized to increase the security. See the PEP 524 for the rationale.
The Linux getrandom() syscall (get random bytes) is now exposed as the new os.getrandom() function. (Contributed by Victor Stinner, part of the PEP 524)


pathlib now supports path-like objects. (Contributed by Brett Cannon in bpo-27186.) See the summary of PEP 519 for details.


The Pdb class constructor has a new optional readrc argument to control whether .pdbrc files should be read.


Objects that need new called with keyword arguments can now be pickled using pickle protocols older than protocol version 4. Protocol version 4 already supports this case. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-24164.)


pickletools.dis() now outputs the implicit memo index for the MEMOIZE opcode. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-25382.)


The pydoc module has learned to respect the MANPAGER environment variable. (Contributed by Matthias Klose in bpo-8637.)
help() and pydoc can now list named tuple fields in the order they were defined rather than alphabetically. (Contributed by Raymond Hettinger in bpo-24879.)


The new choices() function returns a list of elements of specified size from the given population with optional weights. (Contributed by Raymond Hettinger in bpo-18844.)


Added support of modifier spans in regular expressions. Examples: '(?i:p)ython' matches 'python' and 'Python', but not 'PYTHON'; '(?i)g(?-i:v)r' matches 'GvR' and 'gvr', but not 'GVR'. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-433028.)
Match object groups can be accessed by getitem, which is equivalent to group(). So mo['name'] is now equivalent to mo.group('name'). (Contributed by Eric Smith in bpo-24454.)
Match objects now support index-like objects as group indices. (Contributed by Jeroen Demeyer and
Xiang Zhang in bpo-27177.)


Added set_auto_history() to enable or disable automatic addition of input to the history list. (Contributed by Tyler Crompton in bpo-26870.)


Private and special attribute names now are omitted unless the prefix starts with underscores. A space or a colon is added after some completed keywords. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-25011 and bpo-25209.)


The shlex has much improved shell compatibility through the new punctuation_chars argument to control which characters are treated as punctuation. (Contributed by Vinay Sajip in bpo-1521950.) site
When specifying paths to add to sys.path in a .pth file, you may now specify file paths on top of directories (e.g. zip files). (Contributed by Wolfgang Langner in bpo-26587). sqlite3
sqlite3.Cursor.lastrowid now supports the REPLACE statement. (Contributed by Alex LordThorsen in bpo-16864.)


The ioctl() function now supports the SIO_LOOPBACK_FAST_PATH control code. (Contributed by Daniel Stokes in bpo-26536.)
The getsockopt() constants SO_DOMAIN, SO_PROTOCOL, SO_PEERSEC, and SO_PASSSEC are now supported. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-26907.)
The setsockopt() now supports the setsockopt(level, optname, None, optlen: int) form. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-27744.)
The socket module now supports the address family AFALG to interface with Linux Kernel crypto API. ALG*, SOL_ALG and sendmsg_afalg() were added. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-27744 with support from Victor Stinner.)
New Linux constants TCP_USER_TIMEOUT and TCP_CONGESTION were added. (Contributed by Omar Sandoval, issue:26273).


Servers based on the socketserver module, including those defined in http.server, xmlrpc.server and wsgiref.simple_server, now support the context manager protocol. (Contributed by Aviv Palivoda in bpo-26404.)
The wfile attribute of StreamRequestHandler classes now implements the io.BufferedIOBase writable interface. In particular, calling write() is now guaranteed to send the data in full. (Contributed by Martin Panter in bpo-26721.)


ssl supports OpenSSL 1.1.0. The minimum recommend version is 1.0.2. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-26470.)
3DES has been removed from the default cipher suites and ChaCha20 Poly1305 cipher suites have been added. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-27850 and bpo-27766.)
SSLContext has better default configuration for options and ciphers. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-28043.)
SSL session can be copied from one client-side connection to another with the new SSLSession class. TLS session resumption can speed up the initial handshake, reduce latency and improve performance (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-19500 based on a draft by Alex Warhawk.)
The new get_ciphers() method can be used to get a list of enabled ciphers in order of cipher priority. All constants and flags have been converted to IntEnum and IntFlags. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-28025.)
Server and client-side specific TLS protocols for SSLContext were added. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-28085.)


A new harmonic_mean() function has been added. (Contributed by Steven D’Aprano in bpo-27181.)


struct now supports IEEE 754 half-precision floats via the 'e' format specifier. (Contributed by Eli Stevens, Mark Dickinson in bpo-11734.)


subprocess.Popen destructor now emits a ResourceWarning warning if the child process is still running. Use the context manager protocol (with proc: ...) or explicitly call the wait() method to read the exit status of the child process. (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-26741.) The subprocess.Popen constructor and all functions that pass arguments through to it now accept encoding and errors arguments. Specifying either of these will enable text mode for the stdin, stdout and stderr streams. (Contributed by Steve Dower in bpo-6135.)


The new getfilesystemencodeerrors() function returns the name of the error mode used to convert between Unicode filenames and bytes filenames. (Contributed by Steve Dower in bpo-27781.) On Windows the return value of the getwindowsversion() function now includes the platform_version field which contains the accurate major version, minor version and build number of the current operating system, rather than the version that is being emulated for the process (Contributed by Steve Dower in bpo-27932.)
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